The link between Lyme neuroborreliosis (LN) and aggression is reviewed from multiple perspectives. Cases are presented and discussed. It appears Lyme disease (LD) and other related tick-borne diseases contribute towards causing human aggression and violence. Greater attention to this area has the potential of reducing crime and saving lives. Narrow and restrictive opinions on the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease can contribute to the increased consequences of late stage disease, which includes aggression and violence associated with Lyme disease and other related tick-borne diseases.
disease (LD) is a multi-systemic disease with a predominance of dermatological,
musculoskeletal and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Predominant symptoms are first
dermatological, then musculoskeletal, and finally involve the central nervous
system (CNS) in late stage disease. These symptoms may be cognitive, psychiatric
and other neurological impairments. Late stage LD, with a predominance of
cognitive, psychiatric and neurological symptoms has been called many different
names throughout history and in different geographical regions. Recently used
terms include Neuropsychiatric Lyme disease, Neurolyme, Lyme Encephalopathy and
Lyme neuroborreliosis. The causative agent of LD is Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb.),
a spirochete, with many similarities to syphilis. Since vectors which transmit
Bb. are often infected with other microbes, an infection with Bb. is sometimes
complicated by other tick-borne pathogens. Interactive copathogens are more
common in more severe and more chronic cases.
is a normal human function, dysregulated aggression causes violence, which does
not facilitate adaptation and poses a major threat to individual health, social
stability and the survival of our species. Pathological aggression and violence
are not a result of any one cause. Instead, it is a result of a combination of
contributors to violence, which are not adequately compensated by the deterrents
to violence. Many of these contributors are unknown and others have described
some (1,2,3,4,5). This paper shall focus upon a contributor, which has not been
the subject of a large amount of research in the past, the role of infectious
diseases, and more specifically tick-borne diseases and LN.